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The Fricke involution is the Atkin-Lehner involution $w_N$ on the space $S_k(\Gamma_0(N))$ (induced by the corresponding involution on the modular curve $X_0(N)$).

For a newform $f \in S_k^{\textup{new}}(\Gamma_0(N))$, the sign of the functional equation satisfied by the L-function attached to $f$ is $i^{-k}$ times the eigenvalue of $W_N$ on $f$. So, for example when $k=2$, the signs swap, and the analytic rank of $f$ is even when $w_N f = -f$ and odd when $w_N f = +f$.

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• Last edited by John Voight on 2021-08-04 12:28:20
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