A **ring** is a set $R$ with two binary operations $+$ and $\cdot$ such that

- $R$ is an abelian group with respect to $+$
- $\cdot$ is associative on $R$
- the distributive laws hold, i.e., for all $a,b,c\in R$, $$ a\cdot(b+c) = a\cdot b+a\cdot c \qquad \text{and}\qquad (b+c)\cdot a = b\cdot a+c\cdot a.$$ The identity element of $R$ as a group with respect to $+$ is typically denoted by $0_R$ or, more simply, by $0$.

The ring $R$ is a **commutative ring** if $R$ is a ring such that the operation $\cdot$ is commutative on $R$.

We say that $R$ is a **ring with 1** (also called ring with identity, ring with unity, or unitary ring) if there is an identity element with respect to the operation $\cdot$ . In a ring with 1, the identity of $R$ with respect to $\cdot$ is typically denoted by $1_R$ or, more simply, by $1$.

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- Review status: reviewed
- Last edited by Holly Swisher on 2019-04-26 13:57:01

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