A newform $f$ is **twist minimal** if its level achieves the minimum within its twist class.

A twist minimal newform $f$ need not have minimal character, but if this is not the case there will be a twist of $f$ that is both twist minimal and has minimal character.

In the LMFDB, the designated representative of each twist class is the twist minimal newform $g$ of minimal character whose label is lexicographically minimal among all such newforms. This newform $g$ is called the **minimal twist** of the newforms in its twist equivalence class and is identified by a checkmark (✓) in tables of twists.

These conventions also apply to newform orbits.

**Authors:**

**Knowl status:**

- Review status: reviewed
- Last edited by Andrew Sutherland on 2020-02-10 07:35:40

**Referred to by:**

- cmf.minimal_twist
- lmfdb/classical_modular_forms/templates/cmf_newform_common.html (line 100)
- lmfdb/classical_modular_forms/web_newform.py (line 1050)
- lmfdb/classical_modular_forms/web_newform.py (line 1067)
- lmfdb/classical_modular_forms/web_newform.py (line 1121)
- lmfdb/classical_modular_forms/web_newform.py (line 1138)

**History:**(expand/hide all)

- 2020-02-10 07:35:40 by Andrew Sutherland (Reviewed)
- 2020-02-06 08:42:00 by Andrew Sutherland
- 2020-02-06 08:40:10 by Andrew Sutherland
- 2020-02-06 07:47:45 by Andrew Sutherland

**Differences**(show/hide)