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A newform $f$ is twist minimal if its level achieves the minimum within its twist class.

A twist minimal newform $f$ need not have minimal character, but if this is not the case there will be a twist of $f$ that is both twist minimal and has minimal character.

In the LMFDB, the designated representative of each twist class is the twist minimal newform $g$ of minimal character whose label is lexicographically minimal among all such newforms. This newform $g$ is called the minimal twist of the newforms in its twist equivalence class and is identified by a checkmark (✓) in tables of twists.

These conventions also apply to newform orbits.

Knowl status:
  • Review status: reviewed
  • Last edited by Andrew Sutherland on 2020-02-10 07:35:40
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