Properties

Label 3.2
Modulus $3$
Conductor $3$
Order $2$
Real yes
Primitive yes
Minimal yes
Parity odd

Related objects

Learn more about

Show commands for: Pari/GP / SageMath
sage: from sage.modular.dirichlet import DirichletCharacter
 
sage: H = DirichletGroup(3)
 
sage: M = H._module
 
sage: chi = DirichletCharacter(H, M([1]))
 
pari: [g,chi] = znchar(Mod(2,3))
 

Kronecker symbol representation

sage: kronecker_character(-3)
 
pari: znchartokronecker(g,chi)
 

\(\displaystyle\left(\frac{-3}{\bullet}\right)\)

Basic properties

Modulus: \(3\)
Conductor: \(3\)
sage: chi.conductor()
 
pari: znconreyconductor(g,chi)
 
Order: \(2\)
sage: chi.multiplicative_order()
 
pari: charorder(g,chi)
 
Real: yes
Primitive: yes
sage: chi.is_primitive()
 
pari: #znconreyconductor(g,chi)==1
 
Minimal: yes
Parity: odd
sage: chi.is_odd()
 
pari: zncharisodd(g,chi)
 

Galois orbit 3.b

\(\chi_{3}(2,\cdot)\)

sage: chi.galois_orbit()
 
pari: order = charorder(g,chi)
 
pari: [ charpow(g,chi, k % order) | k <-[1..order-1], gcd(k,order)==1 ]
 

Values on generators

\(2\) → \(-1\)

Values

\(-1\)\(1\)
\(-1\)\(1\)
value at e.g. 2

Related number fields

Field of values: \(\Q\)
Fixed field: \(\Q(\sqrt{-3}) \)

Gauss sum

sage: chi.gauss_sum(a)
 
pari: znchargauss(g,chi,a)
 
\( \tau_{ a }( \chi_{ 3 }(2,·) )\;\) at \(\;a = \) e.g. 2
\(\displaystyle \tau_{2}(\chi_{3}(2,\cdot)) = \sum_{r\in \Z/3\Z} \chi_{3}(2,r) e\left(\frac{2r}{3}\right) = -1.7320508076i \)

Jacobi sum

sage: chi.jacobi_sum(n)
 
\( J(\chi_{ 3 }(2,·),\chi_{ 3 }(n,·)) \;\) for \( \; n = \) e.g. 1
\( \displaystyle J(\chi_{3}(2,\cdot),\chi_{3}(1,\cdot)) = \sum_{r\in \Z/3\Z} \chi_{3}(2,r) \chi_{3}(1,1-r) = -1 \)

Kloosterman sum

sage: chi.kloosterman_sum(a,b)
 
\(K(a,b,\chi_{ 3 }(2,·)) \;\) at \(\; a,b = \) e.g. 1,2
\( \displaystyle K(1,2,\chi_{3}(2,·)) = \sum_{r \in \Z/3\Z} \chi_{3}(2,r) e\left(\frac{1 r + 2 r^{-1}}{3}\right) = 0.0 \)

Additional information

This is the first Dirichlet character taking a value other than $1$. It is also the first Dirichlet character with odd parity.